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- Valency the combining power of an element; measured by the number of atoms of hydrogen with which it can combine or which it can replace. Thus chlorine combines with one atom of hydrogen and is, therefore, univalent, calcium replaces two atoms and is, therefore, divalent, and so on. Several elements have different valencies in different compounds, e.g., iron is divalent as in the compounds FeO, or trivalent as in the compound Fe2O3. The valencies of the commoner elements are given on Chart 209.
- "Vallum diamond" a MISNOMER ( COMMERCIAL LABEL ) for rock crystal.
- Variscite R.I. mean 1 57; S.G. 2 52 to 2 60; H. 4 to 5; Rhombic; Colours, apple-green, blue-green; Locality, U.S.A. Sometimes called Utahlite.
- Vaseline a hydrocarbon jelly useful for protective covering of refractometer dense glasses when the instrument is not in use. At a pinch this jelly could be used as an immersion "fluid" for small peelings in refractive index tests. The R.I. is near 1 50.
- Vegetable ivory see Ivory, vegetable.
- Velocity of light see Speed of light.
- Venus hair stone see Quartz.
- Verd antique see Serpentine.
- Verdite a massive deep green micaceous rock used as an ornamental stone; R.I. 1-58; S.G. 2-8 to 3-0; H. 3; South Africa and U.S.A.
- Verneuil process the method devised by the French chemist Verneuil, for the production of synthetic corundum and spinel, by use of the oxy-hydrogen furnace.
- Vesuvianite see Idocrase.
- "Victoria-stone" an artificial chatoyant stone made in various colours. Made in Japan.
- "Vienna turquoise" a MISNOMER ( COMMERCIAL LABEL ) for a glass imitation turquoise.
- "Viennese turquoise" an artificial turquoise produced from precipitated aluminium phosphate coloured by copper oleate. The powder being consolidated by hydraulic pressure into solid form. The material has similar hardness, S.G. and R.J. to true turquoise, but does not decrepitate when heated with the blowpipe flame.
- Violane massive violet-blue diopside, which see.
- Volcanic glass see Moldavite, Obsidian and Tektite.
- Vulcanite crude rubber treated with sulphur by heat; S.G. 1-15 to 1-20 (Ebonite 1-2 to 1-8).