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- Xalostocite is an ornamental stone consisting of crystals of pink grossular garnet in white marble. Also known as Rosolite and Landerite.
- Xanthite name applied to a yellowish-brown variety of idocrase from New York State.
- X-rays the electro-magnetic radiations discovered by Rontgen in 1895 (hence sometimes called Rontgen rays) and well known for their property of penetrating opaque substances to a varying amount. They have a very short wave-length (mean about one Angstrom), so short that Max von Laue, in 1912, experimented and found that the atomic structure of crystals acted as a diffraction grating for these rays and laid the foundation of crystal analysis by X-rays, work which has been followed up by Sir William Bragg and his son, Sir Lawrence Bragg. The X-ray method of pearl testing is based upon crystal diffraction, and depends upon the radial structure of the crystals of aragonite in true pearls as against the parallel arrangement of the crystals in the mother-ofpearl comprising the nucleus of cultured pearls. The spot diffraction photographs obtained by this method are termed "Lauegrams".
- 1 The differential penetrating power of the rays to certain substances is used, not only for assisting in identification of gemstones, but for the determination of pearls by revealing the fine structures of real pearls and the bead of cultured pearls. Both freshwater and cultured pearls fluoresce under X-rays and this gives some help in identification. Synthetic ruby phosphoresces under X-rays while the real ruby does not. This is a valuable aid in the case of awkward synthetic rubies.
- X-rays, Transparency to a method of identifying gems.
- Xylene a liquid hydrocarbon; R.I. = 1-49.