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U V W X Y Z
- Zerfass emerald synthetic emerald grown by the firm of Zerfass of Germany.
- Zinc blende see Blende.
- Zincite R.I. 2-013 --- 2-029; S.G. 5-43 to 5-7; H. 4 to 4.5; Hexagonal; Colour, red; Locality, New Jersey, U.S.A.
- Zircon two distinct types:
- 1 Normal (High) type. R.I. 1-925 --- 1 983 to 1-933 --- 1-992; S.G. 4-60 to 4-70, usually 4-69; fully crystalline, tetragonal; Colours, honey yellow, light green, blue and red. The heat treated stones (colourless, golden-yellow and blue in colour) are of this type.
- 2 Metamict (Low) type. Composed of nearly amorphous Sio,2; and ZrO,2; due to "metamictic" decomposition of the "normal" zircon. R.I. 1-79 to 1-84; S.G. 3-95 to 4-10; Nearly singly refracting; Colours, leaf-green to dirty brownish green.
- Between these two types there are found stones intermediate in character due to a partial decomposition of the "normal" type. They may display a marked banded or zonal structure. Either the "low" or "intermediate" types will return to the "normal" type on prolonged heating. Localities, Ceylon, Indo-China, Thailand (Siam), Brazil, Australia, Russia and France. Low and intermediate types are common from Ceylon. The hardness of normal zircon is 7 and of the low type 6.5.
- Zonite jasper from Arizona.
- Zoisite S.G. 3-35; H. Crystals 8.5:, massive material 6 to 6.5; R.I. 1-692 --- 1-700; Rhombic; Blue, and sometimes green, yellow, pink or brown, which, on heat treatment usually turn blue. Found in Tanzania and hence the stones are called tanzanite. A massive pink zoisite found in Norway is called thulite (S.G. 3-10), and a massive green variety containing large opaque ruby crystals is found in Tanzanla.